Acid ferric sulphate solutions used to leach copper minerals such as chalcocite can be regenerated from spent ferrous solutions. Ferric to copper molar ratios of more than 2.5 are required for effective sulphide copper leach conditions.
Reactors to be used in highly oxidising and scaling conditions would generally require wetted parts to utilise materials combining chemical resistance with suitable solid/liquid interface characteristics. The diffuser required for this application has to resist effects of crystallisation. The extensive use of PTFE and similar thermosetting polymers has been employed. Structural components of the reactors likewise have been found to require high grade austenitic stainless steels, typically ASTM grade 316 or equivalents.